Brain Health

Optimising brain health for lifelong well-being

By mitigating risks and embracing brain boosters, we can optimise brain health for life.

Brain health is a critical aspect of overall well-being that influences various facets of our lives. It encompasses cognitive, sensory, social-emotional, behavioural, and motor domains, allowing individuals to achieve their full potential throughout their lives. In this article, we’ll explore the concept of brain health, its significance, and the framework proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for optimising brain health. We will also discuss how it is interconnected with mental health and its implications for society.

Understanding brain health

Brain health isn’t limited to the absence of neurological disorders; it’s about promoting well-being and enabling individuals to lead fulfilling lives. Our brains continuously adapt and develop, influenced by genetics, environment, and circumstances. These adaptations can be categorized into various stages across the life course:

  1. Neuroplasticity: Rapid growth of neuronal connections in utero and early childhood.
  2. Pruning: Directed shedding of neuronal connections in later childhood and adolescence.
  3. Senescence: Neuronal loss in adulthood, where the aging brain continues to adapt.

These stages were once thought to be consecutive and non-overlapping, but recent research shows that the brain can continue to change and adapt even in old age. By minimizing risk factors and enhancing protective factors, we can improve brain health throughout life.

Brain health and mental health

Mental health and brain health are closely related but distinct concepts. Mental health is a state of well-being, where individuals can realize their abilities, cope with life’s stresses, work productively, and contribute to their communities. Brain health plays a crucial role in mental health, as changes in brain structure and function can impact memory loss and mental well-being. Many factors, such as social adversities, air pollution, and physical activity, can influence mental health through their effects on the brain.

brain health and mental health


Optimising brain health is essential for individuals to achieve their full potential in terms of health and well-being. It involves preserving and improving brain structure and function, reducing the risk of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and promoting overall health. Brain health optimisation is an ongoing process, with numerous determinants affecting brain structure and function.

The proposed framework for brain health optimisation consists of five overarching categories of determinants:

  1. Physical and Environmental Health: Promoting healthy environments, physical safety, and access to quality services.
  2. Learning and Education: Fostering opportunities for cognitive development and social connection.
  3. Social and Economic Security: Ensuring financial stability and access to social services.
  4. Access to Quality Healthcare: Facilitating access to healthcare services for neurological and mental health issues.
  5. Individual Context: Recognizing the unique needs and circumstances of each individual.

Efforts to optimize brain health must be inclusive and empowering, addressing the challenges faced by different individuals throughout their lives. Brain health determinants are interconnected, and strategies should combat stigma, prejudice, and discrimination, promoting health equity. Also, read about the latest insights on benefits of brain training. You can also benefit from finding out your cognitive age and how it compares to your actual age.


Optimizing brain health is not only vital for individuals’ well-being but also for society’s progress. The proposed framework by WHO provides a comprehensive approach to address the various determinants that influence brain health, thereby enhancing mental and physical health, fostering social and economic benefits, and advancing overall well-being. By focusing on brain health, we can empower individuals to lead healthier and more fulfilling lives, irrespective of the presence or absence of disorders.

Credit: World Health Organization (WHO)

We thank the authors for their valuable research on the topic of rural-urban differences in successful aging among older Indian adults. Their work contributes to our understanding of the factors that influence the aging process and highlights the importance of addressing these issues to ensure the well-being of older individuals in India. This article is a layman’s summary of their research, aiming to make their findings accessible to a wider audience.

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